E-ISSN: 2458-9101
Associations between circadian preferences, sleep quality, dissociation, post-traumatic cognitions, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among incarcerated offenders
Özlem Fidan Acar, Selahiddin Öğülmüş, Murat Boysan
Sleep and Hypnosis: A Journal of Clinical Neuroscience and Psychopathology 2019; Online Ahead of Print
The aim of this study was to explore whether DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) dissociative subtype could be differentiated from non-dissociative PTSD caseness in sleep disturbances, circadian preferences, and posttraumatic cognitions. We also investigated associations of dissociation, sleep quality, insomnia, circadian preferences, and trauma-related negative cognitions with DSM-5 PTSD caseness among prisoners. Data from 399 volunteers (mean age: 34.54±9.93 years) were collected. Using the symptoms clusters measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the participants were classified into four subgroups: no dissociation or PTSD, pure dissociative, pure PTSD, and dissociative PTSD. Differences in scale scores across four groups were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to determine predictors of DSM-5 PTSD caseness. Participants with dissociative PTSD reported significantly greater posttraumatic stress reactions in terms of PTSD and dissociative symptomatology, greater number of prior trauma exposure, greater scores on posttraumatic negative cognitions, and a tendency to have eveningness diurnal preferences in comparison to those prisoners classified into other three subgroups (no dissociation or PTSD, pure dissociative, and pure PTSD). However, sleep disturbances in terms of insomnia and poor sleep quality were found to be pronounced among prisoners with PTSD irrespective of levels of dissociation. Dissociative symptomatology, insomnia and poor sleep quality significantly contributed to probable PTSD caseness. Dissociation and sleep disturbances appear to be hallmark for PTSD among prisoners.
Keywords: Dissociative experiences, diurnal preferences, dissociative-PTSD subtype, sleep dissociation
REFERENCES
Agargun, M. Y., Cilli, A. S., Boysan, M., Selvi, Y., Gulec, M., & Kara, H. (2007). Turkish version of Morningness- Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Sleep and Hypnosis, 9(1), 16-23.

Agargun, M. Y., Kara, H., & Anlar, Ö. (1996). Validity and reliability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 7(2), 107–115.

Agargun, M. Y., Kara, H., Ozer, O. A., Selvi, Y., Kiran, U., & Kiran, S. (2003). Nightmares and dissociative experiences: The key role of childhood traumatic events. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 57(2), 139-145. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1819.2003.01093.x

Agargun, M. Y., Kara, H., Ozer, O. A., Selvi, Y., Kiran, U., & Ozer, B. (2003). Clinical importance of nightmare disorder in patients with dissociative disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 57(6), 575-579. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1819.2003.01169.x

Akyuz, G., Kugu, N., Sar, V., & Dogan, O. (2007). Trauma and dissociation among prisoners. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61(3), 167-172. doi:10.1080/08039480701352348

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Anderson, R. E., Geier, T. J., & Cahill, S. P. (2016). Epidemiological associations between posttraumatic stress disorder and incarceration in the National Survey of American Life. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 26(2), 110-123. doi:10.1002/cbm.1951

Ardino, V. (2012). Offending behaviour: The role of trauma and PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 3. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.18968

Armour, C., Contractor, A. A., Palmieri, P. A., & Elhai, J. D. (2014). Assessing latent level associations between PTSD and dissociative factors: Is depersonalization and derealization related to PTSD factors more so than alternative dissociative factors? Psychological Injury and Law, 7(2), 131-142. doi:10.1007/s12207-014-9196-9

Armour, C., Elklit, A., Lauterbach, D., & Elhai, J. D. (2014). The DSM-5 dissociative-PTSD subtype: Can levels of depression, anxiety, hostility, and sleeping difficulties differentiate between dissociative-PTSD and PTSD in rape and sexual assault victims? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(4), 418-426. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.12.008

Armour, C., Karstoft, K. I., & Richardson, J. D. (2014). The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(8), 1297-1306. doi:10.1007/s00127-014-0819-y

Asberg, K., & Renk, K. (2012). Substance use coping as a mediator of the relationship between trauma symptoms and substance use consequences among incarcerated females with childhood sexual abuse histories. Substance Use and Misuse, 47(7), 799-808. doi:10.3109/10826084.2012.669446

Babson, K. A., Boden, M. T., Woodward, S., Alvarez, J., & Bonn-Miller, M. (2013). Anxiety sensitivity and sleep quality: independent and interactive predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(1), 48-51. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31827ab059

Baillargeon, J., Binswanger, I. A., Penn, J. V., Williams, B. A., & Murray, O. J. (2009). Psychiatric disorders and repeat incarcerations: The revolving prison door. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(1), 103-109. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08030416

Bastien, C. H., Vallieres, A., & Morin, C. M. (2001). Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Medicine, 2(4), 297-307. doi:10.1016/S1389-9457(00)00065-4

Betts, K. S., Williams, G. M., Najman, J. M., & Alati, R. (2013). The role of sleep disturbance in the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal ideation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27(7), 735-741. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.09.011

Blevins, C. A., Weathers, F. W., Davis, M. T., Witte, T. K., & Domino, J. L. (2015). The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): Development and initial psychometric evaluation. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(6), 489-498. doi:10.1002/jts.22059

Blevins, C. A., Weathers, F. W., & Witte, T. K. (2014). Dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder: A latent profile analysis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(4), 388-396. doi:10.1002/jts.21933

Blonigen, D. M., Sullivan, E. A., Hicks, B. M., & Patrick, C. J. (2012). Facets of psychopathy in relation to potentially traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder among female prisoners: The mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits. Personality Disorders-Theory Research and Treatment, 3(4), 406-414. doi:10.1037/a0026184

Boysan, M. (2014). Dissociative experiences are associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a non-clinical sample: A latent profile analysis. Archives of Neuropsychiatry, 51(3), 253-262. doi:10.4274/npa.y6884

Boysan, M. (2016). Associations between dissociation and post-traumatic stress response. In C. R. Martin, V. R. Preedy, & V. B. Patel (Eds.), Comprehensive guide to post-traumatic stress disorder (pp. 831-849). New York, NY: Springer.

Boysan, M., Gulec, M., Besiroglu, L., & Kalafat, T. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Insomnia Severity Index in Turkish sample. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi-Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 11(3), 248-252.

Boysan, M., Ozdemir, P. G., Ozdemir, O., Selvi, Y., Yilmaz, E., & Kaya, N. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PCL-5). Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(3), 306-316. doi:10.1080/24750573.2017.1342769

Boysan, M., Yildirim, A., Besiroglu, L., Kefeli, M. C., & Kagan, M. (2018). Development and preliminary psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of obsessional dissociative experiences: The Van Obsessional Dissociation Questionnaire (VOD-Q). Psychiatric Quarterly. doi:10.1007/s11126-017-9555-2

Breslau, N., Roth, T., Burduvali, E., Kapke, A., Schultz, L., & Roehrs, T. (2004). Sleep in lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder: a community-based polysomnographic study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(5), 508-516. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.5.508

Breslau, N., Roth, T., Rosenthal, L., & Andreski, P. (1996). Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults. Biological Psychiatry, 39(6), 411-418.

Briere, J., Agee, E., & Dietrich, A. (2016). Cumulative trauma and current posttraumatic stress disorder status in general population and inmate samples. Psychological Trauma-Theory Research Practice and Policy, 8(4), 439-446. doi:10.1037/tra0000107

Browne, A., Miller, B., & Maguin, E. (1999). Prevalence and severity of lifetime physical and sexual victimization among incarcerated women. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 22(3-4), 301-322. doi:Doi 10.1016/S0160-2527(99)00011-4

Bryant, R. A. (2005). Predicting posttraumatic stress disorder from acute reactions. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 6(2), 5–15. doi:10.1300/J229v06n02_02

Bryant, R. A., Creamer, M., O’Donnell, M., Silove, D., & McFarlane, A. C. (2010). Sleep disturbance immediately prior to trauma predicts subsequent psychiatric disorder. Sleep, 33(1), 69-74.

Bryant, R. A., Harvey, A. G., Guthrie, R. M., & Moulds, M. L. (2000). A prospective study of psychophysiological arousal, acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(2), 341-344.

Butler, L. D., Duran, R. E., Jasiukaitis, P., Koopman, C., & Spiegel, D. (1996). Hypnotizability and traumatic experience: A diathesis-stress model of dissociative symptomatology. American Journal of Pyschiatry, 153(7 Suppl), 42-63. doi:10.1176/ajp.153.8.A42

Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213. doi:Doi 10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4

Carlson, E. B., & Putnam, F. W. (1993). An update on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Dissociation, 6, 16-27.

Casement, M. D., & Swanson, L. M. (2012). A meta-analysis of imagery rehearsal for post-trauma nightmares: Effects on nightmare frequency, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 566-574. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.06.002

Cheung, V. K. L. (2012). An exploratory study on the relationship between dissociation in waking life and negative contents in dreams. International Journal of Dream Research, 5(1), 17-22.

Choe, J. Y., Teplin, L. A., & Abram, K. M. (2008). Perpetration of violence, violent victimization, and severe mental illness: Balancing public health concerns. Psychiatric Services, 59(2), 153-164. doi:DOI 10.1176/appi.ps.59.2.153

Clum, G. A., Nishith, P., & Resick, P. A. (2001). Trauma-related sleep disturbance and self-reported physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189(9), 618-622.

Collins, J. J., & Bailey, S. L. (1990). Traumatic stress disorder and violent behavior. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3, 203-220. doi:10.1007/BF00975146

Constantine, R. J., Petrila, J., Andel, R., Givens, E. M., Becker, M., Robst, J., . . . Howe, A. (2010). Arrest trajectories of adult offenders with a serious mental illness. Psychology Public Policy and Law, 16(4), 319-339. doi:10.1037/a0020852

Cusack, K. J., Herring, A. H., & Steadman, H. J. (2013). PTSD as a mediator between lifetime sexual abuse and substance use among jail diversion participants. Psychiatric Services, 64(8), 776-781. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.000052012

Davis, J. L. (2008). Treating post-trauma nightmares: A cognitive behavioral approach. New York, NY: Springer.

DeCou, C. R., Lynch, S. M., Cole, T. T., & Kaplan, S. P. (2016). Dissociation mediates the association between intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress among treatment-seeking incarcerated women. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 17(4), 480-493. doi:10.1080/15299732.2016.1141148

Dell’Osso, L., Armani, A., Rucci, P., Frank, E., Fagiolini, A., Corretti, G., . . . Cassano, G. B. (2002). Measuring mood spectrum: comparison of interview (SCI-MOODS) and self-report (MOODS-SR) instruments. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43(1), 69-73.

Dell’Osso, L., Massimetti, G., Conversano, C., Bertelloni, C. A., Carta, M. G., Ricca, V., & Carmassi, C. (2014). Alterations in circadian/seasonal rhythms and vegetative functions are related to suicidality in DSM-5 PTSD. BMC Psychiatry, 14, 352. doi:10.1186/s12888-014-0352-2

Diehle, J., Schmitt, K., Daams, J. G., Boer, F., & Lindauer, R. J. L. (2014). Effects of psychotherapy on trauma-related cognitions in posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(3), 257-264. doi:10.1002/jts.21924

Donley, S., Habib, L., Jovanovic, T., Kamkwalala, A., Evces, M., Egan, G., . . . Ressler, K. J. (2012). Civilian PTSD symptoms and risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 40(4), 522-529.

Dudeck, M., Drenkhahn, K., Spitzer, C., Barnow, S., Kopp, D., Kuwert, P., . . . Dunkel, F. (2011). Traumatization and mental distress in long-term prisoners in Europe. Punishment & Society-International Journal of Penology, 13(4), 403-423. doi:10.1177/1462474511414782

Ebdlahad, S., Nofzinger, E. A., James, J. A., Buysse, D. J., Price, J. C., & Germain, A. (2013). Comparing neural correlates of REM sleep in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: a neuroimaging study. Psychiatry Research, 214(3), 422-428. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2013.09.007

Flatt, J. D., Williams, B. A., Barnes, D., Goldenson, J., & Ahalt, C. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and associated health and social vulnerabilities in older jail inmates. Aging & Mental Health, 21(10), 1106-1112. doi:10.1080/13607863.2016.1201042

Foa, E. B., Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M., Tolin, D. F., & Orsillo, S. M. (1999). The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 11(3), 303-314. doi:Doi 10.1037/1040-3590.11.3.303

Ford, J. D., Chang, R., Levine, J., & Zhang, W. L. (2013). Randomized clinical trial comparing affect regulation and supportive group therapies for victimization-related PTSD with incarcerated women. Behavior Therapy, 44(2), 262-276. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2012.10.003

Ford, J. D., Chapman, J., Mack, M., & Pearson, G. (2006). Pathway from traumatic child victimization to delinquency: Implications for juvenile and permanency court proceedings and decisions. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 57(1), 13-26. doi:DOI 10.1111/j.1755-6988.2006.tb00111.x

Ford, J. D., Grasso, D. J., Hawke, J., & Chapman, J. F. (2013). Poly-victimization among juvenile justice-involved youths. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37(10), 788-800. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.01.005

Frewen, P. A., Brown, M. F. D., Steuwe, C., & Lanius, R. A. (2015). Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v6.26406

Germain, A. (2013). Sleep disturbances as the hallmark of PTSD: Where are we now? American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(4), 372-382. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12040432

Germain, A., Buysse, D. J., & Nofzinger, E. (2008). Sleep-specific mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder: Integrative review and neurobiological hypotheses. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 12(3), 185-195. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2007.09.003

Germain, A., Buysse, D. J., Shear, M. K., Fayyad, R., & Austin, C. (2004). Clinical correlates of poor sleep quality in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(6), 477-484. doi:10.1007/s10960-004-5796-6

Germain, A., Hall, M., Krakow, B., Katherine Shear, M., & Buysse, D. J. (2005). A brief sleep scale for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19(2), 233-244. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2004.02.001

Germain, A., Mammen, O., Price, P., & Nofzinger, E. A. (2011). Functional neuroimaging of REM sleep in returning veterans with PTSD: An [18F]-RDG PET study. Sleep, 34, 42.

Germain, A., Shear, M. K., Hall, M., & Buysse, D. J. (2007). Effects of a brief behavioral treatment for PTSD-related sleep disturbances: a pilot study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(3), 627-632. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.04.009

Gibson, L. E., Holt, J. C., Fondacaro, K. M., Tang, T. S., Powell, T. A., & Turbitt, E. L. (1999). An examination of antecedent traumas and psychiatric comorbidity among male inmates with PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12(3), 473-484. doi:Doi 10.1023/A:1024767020280

Ginzburg, K., Koopman, C., Butler, L. D., Palesh, O., Kraemer, H. C., Classen, C. C., & Spiegel, D. (2006). Evidence for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder among help-seeking childhood sexual abuse survivors. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 7(2), 7-27. doi:https://doi.org/10.1300/J229v07n02_02

Giosan, C., Malta, L. S., Wyka, K., Jayasinghe, N., Evans, S., Difede, J., & Avram, E. (2015). Sleep disturbance, disability, and posttraumatic stress disorder in utility workers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 72-84. doi:10.1002/jclp.22116

Gleaves, D. H., May, M. C., & Cardena, E. (2001). An examination of the diagnostic validity of dissociative identity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(4), 577-608. doi:Doi 10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00073-2

Goff, A., Rose, E., Rose, S., & Purves, D. (2007). Does PTSD occur in sentenced prison populations? A systematic literature review. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 17(3), 152-162. doi:10.1002/cbm.653

Goldstein, A. N., & Walker, M. P. (2014). The role of sleep in emotional brain function. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 679-708. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153716

Gosein, V. J., Stiffler, J. D., Frascoia, A., & Ford, E. B. (2016). Life stressors and posttraumatic stress disorder in a seriously mentally ill jail population. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 61(1), 116-121. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12874

Green, B. L., Dass-Brailsford, P., de Mendoza, A. H., Mete, M., Lynch, S. M., DeHart, D. D., & Belknap, J. (2016). Trauma experiences and mental health among incarcerated women. Psychological Trauma-Theory Research Practice and Policy, 8(4), 455-463. doi:10.1037/tra0000113

Green, B. L., Miranda, J., Daroowalla, A., & Siddique, J. (2005). Trauma exposure, mental health functioning, and program needs of women in jail. Crime & Delinquency, 51(1), 133-151. doi:10.1177/0011128704267477

Greene, C. A., Ford, J. D., Wakefield, D. B., & Barry, L. C. (2014). Posttraumatic stress mediates the relationship between childhood victimization and current mental health burden in newly incarcerated adults. Child Abuse and Neglect, 38(10), 1569-1580. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.07.006

Gulec, M., Kalafat, T., Boysan, M., & Barut, Y. (2013). Psychometric Properties of the Turkish Version of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) in a Non-Clinical Sample. Noropsikiyatri Arsivi-Archives of Neuropsychiatry, 50(2), 147-153. doi:10.4274/npa.y6336

Haaland, V. O., & Landro, N. I. (2009). Pathological dissociation and neuropsychological functioning in borderline personality disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 119(5), 383-392. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01323.x

Habukawa, M., Uchimura, N., Maeda, M., Kotorii, N., & Maeda, H. (2007). Sleep findings in young adult patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 62(10), 1179-1182. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.01.007

Hansen, M., Mullerova, J., Elklit, A., & Armour, C. (2016). Can the dissociative PTSD subtype be identified across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for PTSD? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51(8), 1159-1169. doi:10.1007/s00127-016-1235-2

Hansen, M., Ross, J., & Armour, C. (2017). Evidence of the dissociative PTSD subtype: A systematic literature review of latent class and profile analytic studies of PTSD. Journal of Affective Disorders, 213, 59-69. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.02.004

Harvey, A. G. (2008). Insomnia, psychiatric disorders, and the transdiagnostic perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(5), 299-303. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00594.x

Hasler, B. P., Insana, S. P., James, J. A., & Germain, A. (2013). Evening-type military veterans report worse lifetime posttraumatic stress symptoms and greater brainstem activity across wakefulness and REM sleep. Biological Psychology, 94(2), 255-262. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.06.007

Henrichs, J., & Bogaerts, S. (2012). Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in forensic psychiatric outpatients in the Netherlands. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 315-322. doi:10.1002/jts.21706

Ho, F. Y. Y., Chan, C. S., & Tang, K. N. S. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbances in treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 43, 90-102. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.09.005

Horne, J. A., & Ostberg, O. (1975). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4(2), 97-110.

Huang, G. P., Zhang, Y. L., Momartin, S., Cao, Y. P., & Zhao, L. (2006). Prevalence and characteristics of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in female prisoners in China. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 47(1), 20-29. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2005.04.004

Jordan, B. K., Schlenger, W. E., Fairbank, J. A., & Caddell, J. M. (1996). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated women .2. Convicted felons entering prison. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(6), 513-519.

Kaba, F., Solimo, A., Graves, J., Glowa-Kollisch, S., Vise, A., MacDonald, R., . . . Venters, H. (2015). Disparities in mental health referral and diagnosis in the New York City Jail Mental Health Service. American Journal of Public Health, 105(9), 1911-1916. doi:10.2105/Ajph.2015.302699

Kadak, M. T., Nasiroglu, S., Boysan, M., & Aydin, A. (2013). Risk factors predicting posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents after 2011 Van earthquake. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54(7), 982-990. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.04.003

Karatzias, T., Power, K., Woolston, C., Apurva, P., Begley, A., Mirza, K., . . . Purdie, A. (2017). Multiple traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and offending behaviour in female prisoners. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. doi:10.1002/cbm.2043

Khachatryan, D., Groll, D., Booij, L., Sepehry, A. A., & Schutz, C. G. (2016). Prazosin for treating sleep disturbances in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. General Hospital Psychiatry, 39, 46-52. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.10.007

Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., Milanak, M. E., Miller, M. W., Keyes, K. M., & Friedman, M. J. (2013). National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(5), 537-547. doi:10.1002/jts.21848

Knox, J., & Lynn, S. J. (2014). Sleep experiences, dissociation, imaginal experiences, and schizotypy: The role of context. Consciousness and Cognition, 23, 22-31. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.10.007

Kobayashi, I., Boarts, J. M., & Delahanty, D. L. (2007). Polysomnographically measured sleep abnormalities in PTSD: A meta-analytic review. Psychophysiology, 44(4), 660-669. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.537.x

Komarovskaya, I. A., Loper, A. B., Warren, J., & Jackson, S. (2011). Exploring gender differences in trauma exposure and the emergence of symptoms of PTSD among incarcerated men and women. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 22(3), 395-410. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.572989

Koren, D., Arnon, I., Lavie, P., & Klein, E. (2002). Sleep complaints as early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder: a 1-year prospective study of injured survivors of motor vehicle accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(5), 855-857. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.5.855

Krakow, B., Artar, A., Warner, T. D., Melendrez, D., Johnston, L., Hollifield, M., . . . Koss, M. (2000). Sleep disorder, depression, and suicidality in female sexual assault survivors. Crisis, 21(4), 163-170. doi:10.1027//0227-5910.21.4.163

Krakow, B., Haynes, P. L., Warner, T. D., Melendrez, D., Sisley, B. N., Johnston, L., . . . Lee, S. (2007). Clinical sleep disorder profiles in a large sample of trauma survivors: An interdisciplinary view of posttraumatic sleep disturbance. Sleep and Hypnosis, 9(1), 6-15.

Krakow, B., Haynes, P. L., Warner, T. D., Santana, E., Melendrez, D., Johnston, L., . . . Shafer, L. (2004). Nightmares, insomnia, and sleep-disordered breathing in fire evacuees seeking treatment for posttraumatic sleep disturbance. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(3), 257-268. doi:10.1023/B:JOTS.0000029269.29098.67

Krakow, B., Melendrez, D., Johnston, L., Warner, T. D., Clark, J. O., Pacheco, M., . . . Schrader, R. (2002). Sleep-disordered breathing, psychiatric distress, and quality of life impairment in sexual assault survivors. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190(7), 442-452. doi:10.1097/01.NMD.0000022444.23912.D2

Krakow, B., Melendrez, D., Pedersen, B., Johnston, L., Hollifield, M., Germain, A., . . . Schrader, R. (2001). Complex insomnia: Insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in a consecutive series of crime victims with nightmares and PTSD. Biological Psychiatry, 49(11), 948-953.

Krakow, B., Melendrez, D., Warner, T. D., Clark, J. O., Sisley, B. N., Dorin, R., . . . Hollifield, M. (2006). Signs and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in trauma survivors: A matched comparison with classic sleep apnea patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194(6), 433-439. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000221286.65021.e0

Krakow, B., Melendrez, D., Warner, T. D., Dorin, R., Harper, R., & Hollifield, M. (2002). To breathe, perchance to sleep: sleep-disordered breathing and chronic insomnia among trauma survivors. Sleep Breath, 6(4), 189-202. doi:10.1007/s11325-002-0189-7

Krakow, B., Ulibarri, V. A., Moore, B. A., & McIver, N. D. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep-disordered breathing: a review of comorbidity research. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 24, 37-45. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.11.001

Krakow, B., & Zadra, A. (2010). Imagery rehearsal therapy: Principles and practice. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 5(2), 289-298. doi:10.1016/j.jsmc.2010.01.004

Krause-Utz, A., Frost, R., Winter, D., & Elzinga, B. M. (2017). Dissociation and alterations in brain function and structure: Implications for borderline personality disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 19(1). doi:10.1007/s11920-017-0757-y

Kubiak, S. P. (2004). The effects of PTSD on treatment adherence, drug relapse, and criminal recidivism in a sample of incarcerated men and women. Research on Social Work Practice, 14(6), 424-433. doi:10.1177/1049731504265837

Kuroda, H., Wada, K., Takeuchi, H., & Harada, T. (2013). PTSD score, circadian typology and sleep habits of people who experienced the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake 17 years ago. Psychology (Savannah, Ga.), 4(2), 106-110. doi:10.4236/psych.2013.42015

Lanius, R. A., Brand, B., Vermetten, E., Frewen, P. A., & Spiegel, D. (2012). The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: Rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications. Depression and Anxiety, 29(8), 701-708. doi:10.1002/da.21889

Lanius, R. A., Wolf, E. J., Miller, M. W., Frewen, P. A., Vermetten, E., Brand, B., & Spiegel, D. (2014). The dissociative subtype of PTSD. In M. J. Friedman, T. M. Keane, & P. A. Resick (Eds.), Handbook of PTSD: Science and practice (pp. 234-250).

Levin, R., & Nielsen, T. A. (2007). Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: a review and neurocognitive model. Psychological Bulletin, 133(3), 482-528. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.3.482

Maher, M. J., Rego, S. A., & Asnis, G. M. (2006). Sleep disturbances in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: epidemiology, impact and approaches to management. CNS Drugs, 20(7), 567-590.

Malik, S., Kanwar, A., Sim, L. A., Prokop, L. J., Wang, Z., Benkhadra, K., & Murad, M. H. (2014). The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal behaviors in patients with psychiatric diagnoses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev, 3, 18. doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-18

Maschi, T., Gibson, S., Zgoba, K. M., & Morgen, K. (2011). Trauma and life event stressors among young and older adult prisoner. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 17(2), 160-172.

Maschi, T., Morgen, K., Zgoba, K., Courtney, D., & Ristow, J. (2011). Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter? Gerontologist, 51(5), 675-686. doi:10.1093/geront/gnr074

Maxfield, M. G., & Widom, C. S. (1996). The cycle of violence - Revisited 6 years later. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 150(4), 390-395. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170290056009

McFarlane, A. C. (2013). Biology not culture explains dissociation in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 73(4), 296-297. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.026

McHugh, R. K., Hu, M. C., Campbell, A. N., Hilario, E. Y., Weiss, R. D., & Hien, D. A. (2014). Changes in sleep disruption in the treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(1), 82-89. doi:10.1002/jts.21878

Mellman, T. A., Bustamante, V., Fins, A. I., Pigeon, W. R., & Nolan, B. (2002). REM sleep and the early development of posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(10), 1696-1701. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.10.1696

Mellman, T. A., Knorr, B. R., Pigeon, W. R., Leiter, J. C., & Akay, M. (2004). Heart rate variability during sleep and the early development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 55(9), 953-956. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.12.018

Mellman, T. A., Pigeon, W. R., Nowell, P. D., & Nolan, B. (2007). Relationships between REM sleep findings and PTSD symptoms during the early aftermath of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(5), 893-901. doi:10.1002/jts.20246

Mergler, M., Driessen, M., Ludecke, C., Ohlmeier, M., Chodzinski, C., Weirich, S., . . . Studygrp, T. (2017). Relationships between a dissociative subtype of PTSD and clinical characteristics in patients with substance use disorders. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 49(3), 225-232. doi:10.1080/02791072.2017.1296209

Messina, N., Burdon, W., Hagopian, G., & Prendergast, M. (2004). One year return to custody rates among co-disordered offenders. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 22(4), 503-518. doi:10.1002/bsl.600

Messina, N., & Calhoun, S. (2014). Trauma-informed treatment decreases posttraumatic stress disorder among women offenders. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 15(1), 6-23. doi:10.1080/15299732.2013.818609

Messina, N., & Grella, C. (2006). Childhood trauma and women’s health outcomes in a California prison population. American Journal of Public Health, 96(10), 1842-1848. doi:10.2105/Ajph.2005.082016

Messina, N., Grella, C., Burdon, W., & Prendergast, M. (2007). Childhood adverse events and current traumatic distress - A comparison of men and women drug-dependent prisoners. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(11), 1385-1401. doi:10.1177/0093854807305150

Messina, N. P., Burdon, W. M., & Prendergast, M. L. (2003). Assessing the needs of women in institutional therapeutic communities. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 37(2), 89-106. doi:10.1300/J076v37n02_05

Moloney, K. P., van den Bergh, B., & Moller, L. F. (2009). Women in prison: The central issues of gender characteristics and trauma history. Public Health, 123(6), 426-430. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2009.04.002

Mueser, K. T., Salyers, M. P., Rosenberg, S. D., Goodman, L. A., Essock, S. M., Osher, F. C., . . . Comm, S. H. R. S. R. (2004). Interpersonal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with severe mental illness: Demographic, clinical, and health correlates. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(1), 45-57. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a007067

Mullerova, J., Hansen, M., Contractor, A. A., Elhai, J. D., & Armour, C. (2016). Dissociative Features in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Latent Profile Analysis. Psychological Trauma-Theory Research Practice and Policy, 8(5), 601-608. doi:10.1037/tra0000148

Nappi, C. M., Drummond, S. P. A., & Hall, J. M. H. (2012). Treating nightmares and insomnia in posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of current evidence. Neuropharmacology, 62(2), 576-585. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.02.029

Nishith, P., Resick, P. A., & Mueser, K. T. (2001). Sleep difficulties and alcohol use motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(3), 469-479. doi:10.1023/A:1011152405048

Oathes, D. J., & Ray, W. J. (2008). Dissociative tendencies and facilitated emotional processing. Emotion, 8(5), 653-661. doi:10.1037/a0013442

Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 52-73.

Peller, A. J., Najavits, L. M., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2010). PTSD among a treatment sample of repeat DUI offenders. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(4), 468-473. doi:10.1002/jts.20550

Pigeon, W. R., Pinquart, M., & Conner, K. (2012). Meta-analysis of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73(9), e1160-1167. doi:10.4088/JCP.11r07586

Roca, V., Hart, J., Kimbrell, T., & Freeman, T. (2006). Cognitive function and dissociative disorder status among veteran subjects with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: A preliminary study. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18(2), 226-230. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.18.2.226

Ross, C. A., Joshi, S., & Currie, R. (1991). Dissociative experiences in the general population: A factor analysis. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42, 297–301.

Ross, J., Banik, G., Dedova, M., Mikulaskova, G., & Armour, C. (2017). Assessing the structure and meaningfulness of the dissociative subtype of PTSD. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. doi:10.1007/s00127-017-1445-2

Ruzich, D., Reichert, J., & Lurigio, A. J. (2014). Probable posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of urban jail detainees. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37(5), 455-463. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2014.02.018

Sadeh, N., & McNiel, D. E. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder increases risk of criminal recidivism among justice-involve persons with mental disorders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 42(6), 573 –586. doi:10.1177/0093854814556880

Saladin, M. E., Brady, K. T., Dansky, B. S., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (1995). Understanding comorbidity between PTSD and substance use disorders: two preliminary investigations. Addictive Behaviors, 20(5), 643-655.

Salgado, D. M., Quinlan, K. J., & Zlotnick, C. (2007). The relationship of lifetime polysubstance dependence to trauma exposure, symptomatology, and psychosocial functioning in incarcerated women with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 8(2), 9-26. doi:10.1300/J229v08n02_02

Sanders, B., & Green, J. A. (1994). The factor structure of the dissociative experiences scale in college students. Dissociation, 7, 23-27.

Scott, D. A., McGilloway, S., Dempster, M., Browne, F., & Donnelly, M. (2013). Effectiveness of Criminal Justice Liaison and Diversion Services for Offenders With Mental Disorders: A Review. Psychiatric Services, 64(9), 843-849. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201200144

Selvi, Y., Kandeger, A., Boysan, M., Akbaba, N., Sayin, A. A., Tekinarslan, E., . . . Sar, V. (2017). The effects of individual biological rhythm differences on sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and dissociative experiences. Psychiatry Research, 256, 243-248. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.059

Semiz, U. B., Basoglu, C., Ebrinc, S., & Cetin, M. (2008). Nightmare disorder, dream anxiety, and subjective sleep quality in patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(1), 48-55. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01789.x

Short, N. A., Allan, N. P., & Schmidt, N. B. (2017). Sleep disturbance as a predictor of affective functioning and symptom severity among individuals with PTSD: An ecological momentary assessment study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 97, 146-153. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.014

Short, N. A., Babson, K. A., Boden, M. T., & Bonn-Miller, M. O. (2015). Sleep quality, problematic cannabis use and posttraumatic stress symptoms among medical cannabis users. Addiction Research and Theory, 23(3), 246-252. doi:10.3109/16066359.2014.981259

Short, N. A., Babson, K. A., Schmidt, N. B., Knight, C. B., Johnson, J., & Bonn-Miller, M. O. (2016). Sleep and affective functioning: Examining the association between sleep quality and distress tolerance among veterans. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 247-253. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.054

Short, N. A., Ennis, C. R., Oglesby, M. E., Boffa, J. W., Joiner, T. E., & Schmidt, N. B. (2015). The mediating role of sleep disturbances in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and self-injurious behavior. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 35, 68-74. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.09.004

Simor, P., Csóka, S., & Bódizs, R. (2010). Nightmares and bad dreams in patients with borderline personality disorder: Fantasy as a coping skill? European Journal of Psychiatry, 24(1), 28-37.

Sindicich, N., Mills, K. L., Barrett, E. L., Indig, D., Sunjic, S., Sannibale, C., . . . Najavits, L. M. (2014). Offenders as victims: post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder among male prisoners. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 25(1), 44-60. doi:10.1080/14789949.2013.877516

Soffer-Dudek, N., Lassri, D., Soffer-Dudek, N., & Shahar, G. (2015). Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor. Conscious and Cognition, 36, 338-351. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.07.013

Soffer-Dudek, N., & Shahar, G. (2009). What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(4), 891-904. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2008.07.007

Soffer-Dudek, N., & Shahar, G. (2011). Daily stress interacts with trait dissociation to predict sleep-related experiences in young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(3), 719-729. doi:10.1037/a0022941

Soffer-Dudek, N., Shelef, L., Oz, I., Levkovsky, A., Erlich, I., & Gordon, S. (2017). Absorbed in sleep: Dissociative absorption as a predictor of sleepiness following sleep deprivation in two high-functioning samples. Consciousness and Cognition, 48, 161-170. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2016.11.009

Spiegel, D., Loewenstein, R. J., Lewis-Fernandez, R., Sar, V., Simeon, D., Vermetten, E., . . . Dell, P. F. (2011). Dissociative disorders in DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28(9), 824-852. doi:10.1002/da.20874

Spitzer, C., Dudeck, M., Liss, H., Orlob, S., Gillner, M., & Freyberger, H. J. (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder in forensic inpatients. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 12(1), 63-77. doi:Doi 10.1080/09585180121757

Stein, D. J., Koenen, K. C., Friedman, M. J., Hill, E., McLaughlin, K. A., Petukhova, M., . . . Kessler, R. C. (2013). Dissociation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence from the World Mental Health Surveys. Biological Psychiatry, 73(4), 302-312. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.08.022

Steiner, H., Garcia, I. G., & Matthews, Z. (1997). Posttraumatic stress disorder in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(3), 357-365. doi:Doi 10.1097/00004583-199703000-00014

Steuwe, C., Lanius, R. A., & Frewen, P. A. (2012). Evidence for a dissociative subtype of PTSD by latent profile and confirmatory factor analyses in a civilian sample. Depression and Anxiety, 29(8), 689-700. doi:10.1002/da.21944

Stockdale, G. D., Gridley, B. E., Balogh, D. W., & Holtgraves, T. (2002). Confirmatory factor analysis of single- and multiple-factor competing models of the dissociative experiences scale in a nonclinical sample. Assessment, 9, 94–106.

Swopes, R. M., Davis, J. L., & Scholl, J. A. (2017). Treating substance abuse and trauma symptoms in incarcerated women: An effectiveness study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(7), 1143-1165. doi:10.1177/0886260515587668

Tapanci, Z., Yildirim, A., & Boysan, M. (2018). Neurological soft signs, dissociation and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy subjects. Psychiatry Research, 260, 90-97. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.11.058

Teplin, L. A., Abram, K. M., & McClelland, G. M. (1996). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated women .1. Pretrial jail detainees. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(6), 505-512.

Teplin, L. A., McClelland, G. M., Abram, K. M., & Weiner, D. A. (2005). Crime victimization in adults with severe mental illness: Comparison with the national crime victimization survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(8), 911-921. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.8.911

Tsai, J., Armour, C., Southwick, S. M., & Pietrzak, R. H. (2015). Dissociative subtype of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder in US veterans. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 66-67, 67-74. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.04.017

van der Hart, O., van Ochten, J. M., van Son, M. J., Steele, K., & Lensvelt-Mulders, G. (2008). Relations among peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress: A critical review. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 9(4), 481-505.

Van Der Kloet, D., Giesbrecht, T., Franck, E., Van Gastel, A., De Volder, I., Van Den Eede, F., . . . Merckelbach, H. (2013). Dissociative symptoms and sleep parameters - an all-night polysomnography study in patients with insomnia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54(6), 658-664. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.12.025

van der Kloet, D., Giesbrecht, T., Lynn, S. J., Merckelbach, H., & de Zutter, A. (2012). Sleep normalization and decrease in dissociative experiences: Evaluation in an inpatient sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(1), 140-150. doi:10.1037/a0024781

van der Kloet, D., Merckelbach, H., Giesbrecht, T., & Lynn, S. J. (2012). Fragmented sleep, fragmented mind: The role of sleep in dissociative symptoms. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(2), 159-175. doi:10.1177/1745691612437597

van Heugten-van der Kloet, D., Giesbrecht, T., & Merckelbach, H. (2015). Sleep loss increases dissociation and affects memory for emotional stimuli. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 47, 9-17. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.11.002

van Heugten-van der Kloet, D., Huntjens, R., Giesbrecht, T., & Merckelbach, H. (2014). Self-reported sleep disturbances in patients with dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and how they relate to cognitive failures and fantasy proneness. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5(19). doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00112

van Heugten-van der Kloet, D., Merckelbach, H., Giesbrecht, T., & Broers, N. (2014). Night-time experiences and daytime dissociation: A path analysis modeling study. Psychiatry Research, 216(2), 236-241. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.053

van Huijstee, J., & Vermetten, E. (2017). The dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder: Research update on clinical and neurobiological features. In (pp. 1-20). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Wada, K., Kuroda, H., Nakade, M., Takeuchi, H., & Harada, T. (2014). Epidemiological studies on the relationship between PTSD symptoms and circadian typology and mental/sleep health of young people who suffered a natural disaster, Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Natural Science, 6(5), 338-350. doi:10.4236/ns.2014.65035

Walker, M. P., & van der Helm, E. (2009). Overnight therapy? The role of sleep in emotional brain processing. Psychological Bulletin, 135(5), 731-748. doi:10.1037/a0016570

Wallace, C., Mullen, P., Burgess, P., Palmer, S., Ruschena, D., & Browne, C. (1998). Serious criminal offending and mental disorder: Case linkage study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 477-484. doi:10.1192/bjp.172.6.477

Waller, N. G., Putnam, F. W., & Carlson, E. B. (1996). Types of dissociation and dissociative types: A taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences. Psychological Methods, 1(3), 300-321. doi:Doi 10.1037/1082-989x.1.3.300

Warren, J. I., Loper, A. B., & Komarovskaya, I. (2009). Symptom patterns related to traumatic exposure among female inmates with and without a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 37(3), 294-305.

Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(4), 526-535. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.110.4.526

Williams, S. G., Collen, J., Orr, N., Holley, A. B., & Lettieri, C. J. (2015). Sleep disorders in combat-related PTSD. Sleep Breath, 19(1), 175-182. doi:10.1007/s11325-014-0984-y

Wolf, E. J., Lunney, C. A., Miller, M. W., Resick, P. A., Friedman, M. J., & Schnurr, P. P. (2012). The dissociative subtype of PTSD: A replication and extension. Depression and Anxiety, 29(8), 679-688. doi:10.1002/da.21946

Wolf, E. J., Miller, M. W., Reardon, A. F., Ryabchenko, K. A., Castillo, D., & Freund, R. (2012). A latent class analysis of dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder: Evidence for a dissociative subtype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(7), 698-705. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1574

Wolf, E. J., Mitchell, K. S., Sadeh, N., Hein, C., Fuhrman, I., Pietrzak, R. H., & Miller, M. W. (2017). The Dissociative Subtype of PTSD Scale: Initial evaluation in a national sample of trauma-exposed veterans. Assessment, 24(4), 503-516. doi:10.1177/1073191115615212

Wolff, N., Frueh, B. C., Shi, J., & Schumann, B. E. (2012). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral trauma treatment for incarcerated women with mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(7), 703-710. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2012.06.001

Wolff, N., & Shi, J. (2011). Patterns of victimization and feelings of safety inside prison: The experience of male and female inmates. Crime & Delinquency, 57(1), 29-55. doi:10.1177/0011128708321370

Woud, M. L., Verwoerd, J., & Krans, J. (2017). Modification of cognitive biases related to posttraumatic stress: A systematic review and research agenda. Clinical Psychology Review, 54, 81-95. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2017.04.003

Wright, K. M., Britt, T. W., Bliese, P. D., Adler, A. B., Picchioni, D., & Moore, D. (2011). Insomnia as predictor versus outcome of PTSD and depression among Iraq combat veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(12), 1240-1258. doi:10.1002/jclp.20845

Yargic, L. I., Tutkun, H., & Sar, V. (1995). The reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Dissociation, 8, 10-13.

Yildirim, A., & Boysan, M. (2017). Heterogeneity of sleep quality based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in a community sample: a latent class analysis. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 15(3), 197-205. doi:10.1007/s41105-017-0097-7

Yıldırım, A., Boysan, M., & Yılmaz, O. (2017). The mediating role of pathological worry in associations between dissociative experiences and sleep quality among health staff. Sleep and Hypnosis. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5350/Sleep.Hypn.2017.19.0152

Zlotnick, C., Johnson, J., & Najavits, L. M. (2009). Randomized controlled pilot study of cognitive-behavioral therapy in a sample of incarcerated women with substance use disorder and PTSD. Behavior Therapy, 40(4), 325-336. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2008.09.004
GUIDE FOR AUTHORS
EDITORIAL BOARD
ABOUT JOURNAL
INDEXED IN
AHEAD OF PRINT
ARCHIVES
CURRENT ISSUE
CONTACT US