E-ISSN: 2458-9101
Association of Sleep Quality with Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Elderly Referred to Health Centers in Qazvin, Iran
Leila Dehghankar, Azam Ghorbani, Leili Yekefallah, Marziyeh Hajkarimbaba, Akram Rostampour
Sleep and Hypnosis: A Journal of Clinical Neuroscience and Psychopathology 2018;20(3):227-232
Background and aim: Sleep disorders are not innately harmful to quality of life, they can induce or complicate physical and mental sicknesses and increase the risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality components with socio-demographic characteristics in elderly people in Qazvin, Iran.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 400 elderly patients referred to health centers in Qazvin. Data were collected by using a demographic questionnaire and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software, descriptive and inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, logistic regression).

Results: The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 80%. Statistically significant difference were observed between total global PSQI score and economic condition (p<0.03) and had chronic physical disease (P<0.001). Highest component scores was sleep latency (1.55±1.06) and lowest was habitual sleep efficiency (0.16±0.57). Older women had worse sleep quality compared with older men (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression model indicated that female sex is associated with greater tendency towards poor sleep quality (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.08-2.94, P=0.022).

Conclusion: This study provides evidences that poor sleep quality was high among the elderly of Qazvin. It seems sleep quality assessment of older adults is necessary to identify the factors affecting sleep quality and to adopt appropriate measures and strategies to eliminate or reduce the effect of these factors.
Keywords: elderly, sleep quality, community health centers
Adams, J. (2006). Socioeconomic position and sleep quantity in UK adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health; 60(3): 267-9. doi: 10.1136/jech.2005.039552.

Araújo, C. L. D. O., & Ceolim, M. F. (2010). Sleep quality of elders living in long-term care institutions. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 44(3), 619-626.

Azri, M.A., Dahlan, A., Ghazali, Masuri, M., Anuar, Md, Isa KH(2016). Sleep Quality among Older Persons in Institutions. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 234:74-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.221.

Barry P. P (2000). An overview of special considerations in the evaluation and management of the geriatric patient. The American Journal of Gastroenterology; 95:8-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.01697.x;)

Buysse, D.J., Reynolds, C.F. 3rd, Monk, T.H., Hoch, C.C., Yeager, A.L., Kupfer, D.J. (1991).Quantification of subjective sleep quality in healthy elderly men and women using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep. 14(4):331-8.

Chein, M.Y., Chen, H.C (2015). Poor Sleep Quality is Independently Associated with Physical Disability in Older Adults. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine; 11(3):225-232. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.4532

Friedman, E.M., Love, G.D., Rosenkranz, M.A., Urry, H.L., Davidson, R.J., Singer, B.H. Ryff C.D. (2007). Socioeconomic status predicts objective and subjective sleep quality in aging women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(7):682-91. DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31814ceada

Hsiu, H.C., Lin, M.H. (2005). Exploring quality of sleep and its related factors among menopausal women. Journal of Nursing Research, 13(2):153-164. doi: 10.1097/01.JNR.0000387536.60760.

Park, M. J., & Kim, K. H. (2017). What affects the subjective sleep quality of hospitalized elderly patients?. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 17(3), 471-479. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12743.

Kiejna, A., Rymaszewska, J., Wojtyniak, B., Stokwiszewski, J. (2004). Characteristics of sleep disturbances in Poland - results of the National Health Interview Survey. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 16(3):124-9. doi: 10.1111/j.0924-2708.2004.00063.x.

Landry, G.J., Best, J.R., Ambrose, T.L. (2015). Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 7, 1-10. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00166.

Lee, L.Y., Tam, K.W., Lee, M.L., Lau, N.Y., Lau, J.C., Lam, Y.M., Lam, C.H., Kwan, W.K., Chan, D., Chan, B., Chan, P.Z. (2015). Sleep quality of middle-aged Tai Chi practitioners. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 12(1):27-34. doi: 10.1111/jjns.12045.

Mendoza-Meléndez, M. Á., Jimenez-Correa, U., Gallegos-Cari, A., Ayala-Guerrero, F., & Jiménez-Anguiano, A. (2016). Prevalence of sleep disorders, daytime sleepiness and clinical symptomatology in older adults. Revista Médica del Hospital General de México, 79(3), 136-143. Doi: 10.1016/j.hgmx.2016.05.021

Moore, P.J., Adler, N.E., Williams, D.R., Jackson, J.S. (2002). Socioeconomic status and health: the role of sleep. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(2):337-44.

Nazifi, M., Mokarami, H., Akbaritabar, A., Kalte, A.O., Rahi, A. (2014). Psychometric Properties of the Persian Translation of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality. Health Scope, 3(2): 1-4.

Niu, J., Han, H., Wang, Y., Wang, L., Gao, X., Liao, S. (2016). Sleep quality and cognitive decline in a community of older adults in Daqing City, China. Sleep Medicine 17, 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2015.07.033.

Noroozian M (2012). The Elderly population in Iran: An ever growing concern in the health system. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 6(2): 1-6. PMCID: PMC3940007

Park, J.H., Yoo, M.S., Bae, S.H. (2013). Prevalence and predictors of poor sleep quality in Korean older adults. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 19, 116-23. doi: 10.1111/ijn.12047.

Mofrad, Z. P., Jahantigh, M., & Arbabisarjou, A. (2016). Health Promotion Behaviors and Chronic Diseases of Aging in the Elderly People of Iranshahr*-IR Iran. Global journal of health science, 8(3), 139-45. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v8n3p139

Smagula, S.F., Stone, K.L., Fabio, A., Cauley, J.A. (2016). Smagula Risk factors for sleep disturbances in older adults: Evidence from prospective studies. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 25, 21-30. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.01.003.

Smyth, C.A. (2008). Evaluating sleep quality in older adults: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index can be used to detect sleep disturbances or deficits. American Journal of Nursing, 108(5):42-50? doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000317300.33599.63.

Wu, C.Y., Tung-Ping, Su. B., Chin-Lung, Fang, C, Mei, Yeh, Chang, A. (2012). Sleep quality among community-dwelling elderly people and its demographic, mental, and physical correlates. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 75, 75-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcma.2011.12.011