ISSN: 1302-1192 / E-ISSN: 2458-9101
The Nightmare Proneness Scale: A Proposed Measure for the Tendency to Experience Nightmares
William E. Kelly
Sleep and Hypnosis: A Journal of Clinical Neuroscience and Psychopathology 2017; Online Ahead of Print
This article presents three studies aimed at the development and analysis of a proposed measure of nightmare proneness, the tendency to experience nightmares frequently. In Study 1 a sample of 205 university students was utilized to create the Nightmare Proneness Scale (NPS), consisting of personality and symptomatology items that significantly differentiated between individuals reporting frequent nightmares and controls. Study 2 cross-validated the ability of the NPS to discriminate between frequent nightmare reporters and controls among a sample of 275 students. Study 2 also found that the NPS accounted for unique variance in nightmare frequency above other measures of distress. The NPS possessed adequate internal consistency across all studies. Study 3 demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability of the NPS. The results and suggestions for future research were discussed.
Keywords: nightmares, dreams, personality, sleep, self-report scales, mental health
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